Why Carbon Is More Important Than N,P & K
9 Aug 2237 min 50 sec

We’ve been instructed since the advent of soil testing on the importance of the macronutrients — nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium.  But what about carbon? Where’s it on the soil sample, why do I need it, and where do I buy it for my crops?  That inability to buy carbon — or for the inputs industry to sell it to farmers -- is precisely why Kelly Garrett says we’ve never been advised on carbon’s importance as a crop input.  That’s all changing according to BiomeMaker agronomist Al Toops who says through advanced soil analysis is uncovering the role of carbon in soil biology. As Connor Garrett says, “N,P & K are like vitamins. Take them and they’ll make you feel better. But carbon is food. You can’t live without it.”  

Presented by AgXplore

00:00 A lot of people that make money selling in P&K a lot of folks that just think the secret to Great successful yields and bigger and bigger bushels 00:09 is to throw more np&k out there except what we've been taught are gonna say what in the hell are they talking about? I don't even know where I buy carbon to go out there and spread 00:18 it on my Fields. Exactly. Welcome to extreme mags cutting the curve more than just a podcast. It's the place for insights. 00:27 You can apply immediately to your farm operation for increased success this episode of cutting the curve is brought to you by AG Explorer. 00:36 With Innovative products that improve fertilizer efficiency protect yield and reduce stress. AG explore 00:42 helps maximize field potential find out how AG explore can help you get more out of your crop at Ag explore.com. And now here's 00:51 your host Damien Mason. Hey greetings and welcome to another fantastic episode of extreme Ash cutting the curve. We are talking about carbon today 01:00 not carbon credit is not carbon sequestration. Not any of that stuff that we may be covered before what about carbon specifically why it's more important than the 01:09 macro nutrients of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium. Yes there I said it it's not something you can go and buy at the Cooper drag retailer. So, 01:18 how are you going to put it into the soil to get bigger yields and more importantly you're asked a question. This guy seems like he's crazy. No, it's not me. It's 01:27 my guess. I'll tubes with a company called biome makers and Kelly Garrett one of the original flowers of extreme AG his son Connor. 01:36 In Iowa Northwest Iowa Farmers, they are big on carbon they're going to tell you because they're the experts they're going to tell you why carbon is more important than 01:45 NP and K. I'm going to start with I think Kelly. Is that where I start this journey or do I start now? Why is carbon more important than in P&K? 01:57 Photo synthesis and feeding the microbial system in the soil is the simple answer. Yeah. Now you're the agronomist you've 02:05 been in this business for 35 plus years. You're trained in a Agronomy and Oklahoma State University. You came to this company biome makers 02:14 and you've got you've made all the mistakes, you know, you you know what we did back in the old days. And now you're talking about 02:23 carbon. Nobody would have done this back when you started your career, right? 02:27 Well when I started my career you're thinking about. You know, obviously young agronomists getting into the world of AG retail. That was that's where that was 02:37 where it was happening, you know, and so we were thinking about Inputs everything's about inputs. What are we putting into the farming 02:43 system cropping system? And you're my my thought process was protective or you know, we got to think 02:51 about preventing fungicides insecticides NPK fertilizer applications this type of thing and we're only thinking about what the plan is taking up 03:00 at Kelly's exactly right when we look at the over the years. I begin to just really discover through understanding the microbiome. 03:09 That what is the plant producing and what is the plant providing to the soil biology and what the plan is producing is carbohydrates. It's 03:18 feeding the soil. I mean when you think about that Powerhouse of energy. In an acre of corn for instance 03:27 how much photosynthesis is happening and how many carbohydrates are going into the soil profile? This untapped resource of energy is something we've never 03:36 really thought of it's what the plants producing instead of what we're getting off of it. So carbon is essential it is 03:42 the governor of every soil operation. Every Farm should be more concerned about carbon. I think than any other input that they put in. 03:51 It's probably hard for you know, even in the everyday vernacular right now we hear about carbon every second of the day climate change climate 04:00 change climate crisis carbon-carbon carbon, and so the average person thinks that carbons this evil thing that carbon 04:07 is this is this it's it's gonna kill us all and in agriculture like no actually we need that stuff somebody answer this. 04:17 Yeah, I mean soil contains three times more carbon. Than the Earth's atmosphere. It has four times more carbon than all the 04:25 camera animals and and plants on the surface. So I mean the soil is the energy that is the battery or life on planet Earth. 04:34 And if we don't we don't take care of that and manage it properly then we deplete our 04:39 Our other you know, everything else related to the soil profile. So how does how does that feed it? Well, it's 04:46 all about this symbiotic relationship between this miracle of nature which is called photosynthesis that atmosphere has this Warehouse full 04:55 of carbon. Dioxide did the plants the only source out there that can can make that available to the soil so that interchange between the plant and 05:04 the soil and the atmosphere and the soil happens between the plant processes and that process is essential 05:10 just to Future free for future growth of whatever it is. You're growing on that farm. So storing carbon should be something that you 05:19 really kind of look at as an opportunity to be able to really build your Equity anymore. 05:24 Connor you've been out of college for a little over a year. I was to University esteemed land grant University that it 05:30 is right there and the one most agriculturally productive states in the union and you were in Agronomy major how many of your classes did 05:39 we talk about carbon? And then how many times we talk about carbon being? As important or more so than the macronutrients. 05:49 So we talked about carbon a couple times talking cover crops talking a couple different days, but it definitely wasn't a main focus and we never once said it was more 05:59 important than into your kid. All right, what's your and your thoughts are these are these just some old Kooks 06:05 over here talking is Al finally, you know, he's at the tour data was career. He started smoking some weed. He got a little 06:13 crazy. He's a cook or you know, he's talking about you. Give me the 23 year old perspective agronomist to agronomist. 06:20 no, I I don't think he's gone off the deep end. Oh, you're in PK really a secondary to your carpet 06:29 because all that mpk it you're not gonna get most of that without biological life without and you're not gonna get that without feeding you with the carbon. So it's a 06:38 it's a secondary process. If you're not if your car is not right, you're in PK, you're gonna be even more off and out 06:44 can correct me if I'm wrong, but we don't even know how much how much of the photosynthesis the carbon that the plant is fixing. It's kicking 06:53 out of the soil right is how high is that percentage out? Let me tell you a little bit of it just some real wait 06:59 real quick restate just because I want the listener. This is a he was Connor came to life there, which I 07:05 really like and you just asked a question restate the question how much because I want to make sure the listener has that to get the really good answer 07:14 for now. The plant the plant is in the process photosynthesis. The plant is fixing carbon what percentage of the carbon is it using 07:24 to build plant structures versus what percentage is it putting out into the soil into the rise of sphere to see for for that biological light good 07:33 question. So there's two or three things to look at here. When you look at the contents of the plant metabolism. 07:41 All right. 90% of the plant's structure Is hydrogen carbon and oxygen 90% So the other 10% is made up of nitrogen sulfur 07:52 phosphorus potassium calcium these minor Elements which are very peace. Very small percentages. 90% is c a 90% choose. Now. 08:01 A lot of people wouldn't really think that those are nutrients but they are carbon is a nutrient 08:07 and so what what's essential to that is all the other organisms. So you look at the top that's I would say a quarter of a tablespoon of topsoil. 08:17 Is about oh, I don't know 10 billion organisms. In a quarter tablespoon, there's more Pete. There's more organisms than a quarter tablespoon. There are people on the planet. 08:28 So what we got to do this find the sources to feed these organisms and that energy produced in one inch or one inch of topsoil a healthy topsoil energy produces equivalent 08:37 to 10,000 people doing the same job. We can't physically match the energy that's produced in the soil if it's fed. 08:46 So the way that's fed is through carbohydrates photosynthesis carbon. Dioxide feeds the microfen. What we what we 08:53 what I told you before was the mycorrhizal fungi. That's the transition between they feed on the carbohydrates and exchange for nutrients 09:02 from the bacteria that's there. And so if you don't have this relationship and balance, then you end 09:08 up losing that ability for that plant to pick up those other minor nutrients. It's still going to have carbon as its 09:14 base for its structure. But it's not going to have the full story and you're going to get less Shields. I mean I've heard stories and I know everyone's trying 09:22 to get three 400 bushel corn but in the proper soil conditions, we should be getting five six seven hundred bushels. 09:30 Right and so we could do that. If we really build our carbon our carbon Storehouse. That's the interface the battery. There's a 09:36 huge statement that you just made you just made a huge statement that we're most trying to get through bushel corn. But with the proper soil, would 09:46 you say there with the proper? What did you press up the proposal symbiosis the proper carbon Storehouse the right channels to build carbon in 09:55 the soil. You'll you could you could you you're storing up of food source for the biology that will help 10:01 move these nutrients. And you said 600 bushel corn is possible. I just know that most people listen to this. They just dropped her phone to get really excited. You 10:10 know, nothing gets Farm people excited like massive yields. You hear you talk to some 10:16 of the Breeders they'll say that the potential for a bag of seed corn is 900 bushels. 10:21 So we're getting 300. We're getting to see or D. All right for an average. I'm gonna gear and son with GLC here at Landon 10:30 Cattle Company. Is carbon the limiting factor, you know, we talked to the previously the limiting factor oftentimes the limiting factoring Factor 10:40 usually on record yields is the operator but is and I know that sounds mean but that's why folks come to the extreme AG because 10:49 they're saying you know what I can get better and for me to get better, I'll make yield because I'm learning Factor, but 10:55 it's carbon the limiting factor why we're not getting 600 bushel corn. 10:59 No the lack of understanding from the grower on how to use the carbon. Yeah how to store the carbon. That is the yield limiting factor. 11:08 All right, so let's talk about storage of carbon. You know by virtue of having a plant growing out there. It absorbs carbon 11:19 dioxide. That's the photosynthesis process and then it puts it into its plant and then some of that goes into the soil. That's what we just talked about when Corner 11:28 ask your question. What more can I do? I mean, I don't answer the plans out there. It's dude. I can't go out and tell the plant to work harder. What am I supposed to do if 11:37 your fungal species are inactive and that's one of the things we measure with our report is we like to show a ratio between fungi and bacteria. 11:45 If that fungal population is low, then you're not storing carbon. It's going it's gassing off. And so you have to build those fungal species back. That's the 11:54 that's the that's the mechanism that moves this and stores it in the soil for the for the future life of 12:00 that plant in the Next Generation. I mean think about it if it wasn't for those species and made in nature would be waiting neck deep and dead plants. 12:09 So the process of breaking down last year's so residents are plant residues and making them available in 12:15 the form of fungal population to build up. To act adhere to the roots next season is essential so that fungal that fungal piece is a major major 12:24 part of why we're not storing carbon. And every time we plow and every time we apply fungicides, we're deteriorating that population. So you just said 12:33 that we we can make the plant we can do better about getting carbon into the ground, but it's got to be through not tilling 12:42 and and not disturbing the fungal and Yeah, the wrong good bunch out about what we call Michael risel. 12:51 That's that's the species that attach to the root. Okay, Connor Connor and Kelly. Is that the deal? 13:00 Yeah, okay. Yeah, absolutely. Is there any time talked about he talked about the energy source, and I think just a 13:10 short story here that because this will quantify it when we put on line and we're trying to adjust the 13:16 pH you have to put on if you go put on three ton of lime out, you're gonna move the pH of the soil a very minut amount, 13:25 correct, you know, like just a maybe a couple tenths of a point. Would you agree? Agree in 2020 right 13:33 out here, you know outside the shop between the shop of my house out here, you know, we're trying to raise 400 bushel corn. 13:39 And we're taking tissue test and soil test in season. To see how the soil change in the tissues were changing and this, you know, then the duration came so it ruined all 13:50 the data we're trying to collect in the end. But the do you remember taking these soil test when the when the crop was hungry and you're coming into that 13:59 ear feel time and it you know that huge uptake time of the plant and and we're talking about we're talking about the carbohydrates the exudates that 14:08 the crop is pushing out. our soil PH dropped a point and a half over a two-week period 14:17 until the crop and then the ears got fold you remember this and then the ears got full and all of a sudden it came 14:23 back. So now we as man are taken three ton of lime out. We're trying to adjust this pH and it's like two tenths of a point at a time three tenths of a point at a time. Sometimes it doesn't 14:33 even move and the magic, you know, as we talked about before a photo synthesis Damian move the pH of the soil 1.5 dropped 14:42 it a point and a half in 10 days and then it came back tell me that that is not a powerful energy source that we know nothing about. 14:52 If I had taken my soil samples somehow during that time, I've been like holy crap. We couldn't put 15:01 enough lime on this field to get this situation right or there's too much lime. Whatever. You said it varied by a 15:07 very by 1.5. It did so because we're in the scale 14 zero to 14. Yes. Okay. So Kevin is new sevens neutral you want 15:18 it to be about a 6.2. Yeah, you know and you know in this soil out here is a six two to a six five. It dropped it to a five 15:27 or even maybe a 4.8 and it came back and that's because the exades that alcoholism carbohydrates I would call them next to 15:36 dates this Carbonic sugar, you know and it a little side note here. You know, how many people you ask? Why does the plant conduct photosynthesis and they'll say well to capture 15:45 CO2. Well, what does it do it? And we don't know but a certain percentage of it is that you know, the O2 is released off and the carbon 15:54 is made into a carbohydrate a Carbonic sugar that is very that is very acidic and it's pushing 16:03 it out through the root system and there's an exchange going on in your safe in your soil the microbial system 16:09 in the soil is offering the plant available nutrition and the The root hairs of the plant are offering up this Carbonic sugar 16:18 and a little trade takes place. Yeah. So the more carbon that we can put into the soil the more we can trade with the microbial system the microbial 16:27 system that has a little party and replicates itself and offers up even more plan available nutrition. So 16:33 the key to higher yields is putting more carbon in the soil. So we have more to trade with the little people down here. I I like it and I like the little people thing but why 16:42 did that change the pH level because the carbon we're pushing into the soil is very acidic so it drops it drops the pH while they 16:51 were eating and then it comes back but I'll say that it was a short-term thing now. Well Damian you remember that not told you the 90% 17:00 of the three essential elements that we look at one of those hydrogen and that's all the pH is a measurement of hydrogen percent hydrogen. 17:07 and so what what you're doing there with this process is you're allowing more hydrogen to come into the through the photosynthetic process 17:13 the carbon dioxide, so That hydrogen back, you know, it's another one that we really need to spend more time focusing on it's how to how 17:21 to capture more hydrogen in the soil and we've done that with carbon, you know carbonates and that's what liming does 17:27 but the pole point is is that I think the plant and a natural system with the healthy soil biology. You're going to actually have a balanced pH. 17:36 Kelly's right you that we've done those measurements as well in research Connor you are you keeping up with this are 17:45 they telling is this new stuff or this stuff that you already knew? I've heard a lot of this stuff, but I'm learning a lot 17:53 too. This is interesting. Yeah. All right. So we're going back to the thing. We've covered in a previous episode. You think that after we get done more people should be doing this and and you 18:02 think that that we where you went to school. They're not talking enough about carbon. 18:07 Nobody's talking enough about carbon. All right, so I go to the other one. Is there a maximum amount first off? 18:13 before I get that How am I going to get more carbon in my soil? But so I mean the guy listened this right now says I'm not 18:21 disagree with any of this and also I might be able to sell carbon credits if I pump more of it into the dirt how 18:29 How do I same thing we just talked about if I want to put more nicer than my soil I can do what we've always been told. I run down to the co-op and get me a bunch of entire just 18:38 wagons. I come out here and just just pump it in there if I want to, you know, get more of 18:44 Phosphorus I can go and you know grab the dry stuff and fertilize the hell out of it. How do I get more carbon in my dirt? 18:52 The easiest way well, you want to have a healthy balance soil that, you know, so the the microbial system 18:58 is there wanting to receive it and then the easiest thing on top of my head. The first thing I would do is cover crops always having something growing always having 19:07 a photo synthetic activity going on in your soul. All right. So the recommendation number one is have a healthy soil. Well, that's kind of like saying. Hey 19:16 you want to not be sick be healthy. Well, come on SO to get to a healthy soil. I mean that's let's make sure that it's right action steps the 19:25 actionable steps that our listeners because they listen to extreme egg for a reason they want to be able to take it and actually apply 19:31 it to their to their farming operation. Yes, so to me, so to me you say start the cover crop. 19:38 A cover crop will you know you're you know in our Northern latitude obviously, it shuts down for a while, but that cover crop 19:47 that cover crop growing and always having something growing on your soil conducting photosynthesis. And then like when I say a healthy balance soil, I'm talking from 19:56 a base saturation standpoint. Okay, and you like in in our Hills here? We have too much calcium. That's why we apply sulfur to help the calcium precipitate out 20:05 and make the other element the other nutrients become available. Then the microbial system can make them available to 20:11 the plant. So you need to balance the soil from a base saturation standpoint. You need to add to cover crop to put as much carbon in as you can. So we 20:20 have a very active by all eg very active biology in our soil Connor. You're you're at Landing Cattle. You're the you're the Next Generation. What 20:29 is your recommendation? What do you what do you tell me to do to get more carbon into my soil first step is just stop Village. 20:38 I would say. That's really what we need to look at is no-till systems as much as we possibly can somebody and then one 20:45 of our one of our listeners like Matt miles is gonna tell you I'm conventional I I have to till is he if he cuts back does it help 20:54 or is it no till or nothing? I I it's different for every person I guess but the least you can do is probably best right. 21:02 It depends on the farm depends on the conditions, of course, but when we're slices open that that soil we're exposing all that to the air you're killing everything 21:11 you're killing you're killing a lot of the fungus that's storing the carbon like Al said so as much 21:17 as little tillage little soil disturbance as possible that you can use the best. Like he said cover crops if you've always got that growing. 21:25 You've got that photosynthesis kicking carbon down under the soil that that's huge. Those are those are the two main steps. And then like he said a balance soil 21:36 from a base saturation standpoint first and foremost. Otherwise your biology can't 21:41 work, right Now, is there anything else I can do? I just got others. I got you've cover crops start with the helmet healthy belt 21:50 sort of the healthy soil and I already called out Kelly said that's like say if you don't want to you know be healthy. He said 21:56 no a healthy balanced soil and he went down the whole thing about your ph's and and and those kinds 22:02 of things and then I heard used cover crops and I heard no till or the very least we do just because you do 22:11 the better is a carbon getting your soil. What else? Well, like I told you earlier those three top components are hydrogen carbon and oxygen. 22:20 So we got to figure out and that's what Kelly is talking about as carbon fixation, which is through the photosynthetic process the soil 22:26 biology and then you have aerobic respiration. So one of the things we really ought to focus on as well is the amount of oxygen in the soil, which is 22:36 oh exciting because never had to get more oxygen you have to how's the room if you know, how's your room for both of it? Well, 22:44 you figure that happier, you know when you look at Water the biggest molecule on it is oxygen. 22:50 And so what we got to really figure is how to how to get better, you know at I would 22:56 say aerobic respiration cut down on your methane better firm into not as much fermentation, you know, wet soils cause aerobic situations. 23:05 All right. So what happens to get more oxygen? In other words, I'll get more carbon in myself. If I get more oxygen to get more oxygen in there. The old school thing would 23:17 say get more oxygen that means anymore air space you more space. I gotta go out there until it and lift that 23:23 soil up and provide airspace. I'm just telling you what we used to think. I know I know and I thought the same way but the best way to get air spaces through roots. 23:32 And and that's that's why that's how it happens is the plant has the ability to open up these Pathways and open up these channels or better. I would 23:41 say aerobic respiration. Okay, so to get more air in the soil, I gotta have roots and then it goes back to the cover cropping thing. Now we did a thing 23:50 for a while and it's not as popular as it was radishes. I don't see ten years ago because the idea was in great big old things 23:56 went down and they opened up a big bunch of you know, improved porosity and all that is that we're talking about 24:03 It's a good place to start if you're wanting to start cover cropping. From it from a heavy tilt soil. Yes as it 24:10 opens up and breaks up and breaks up hard probably kind of thing. Yeah. Okay, so get more oxygen as 24:16 well and then you talk about Roots Roots do it earthworms help or no? Earthworm sale earthworms are essential to providing biology 24:25 and also to bring air porosity. Okay channels. All right, and then what else can I do to get more oxygen in the soil you said going on until the old the idea 24:34 of going out and lifting it lifting it up and fluffing it moving it and all that. It doesn't actually put a more oxygen in the soil. 24:40 so now mycelium is the best source for moving oxygen and that comes from the what we'd call the roots of a fungi. 24:47 Are there that are the fungal spores and how they begin to populate that soil biology? So the best thing to do to get air in the soil is to 24:56 have a good solid cover crop no tillage practices in the beginning to build your organic matter. Okay. Thank you as you begin to build organic matter, 25:05 then you have you know, this ability for really have a good strong Storehouse. The lubers is one of our guys. He Farms 25:11 a bunch of acres and Gregory South Dakota. I think they had the Iditarod at his farm not too long ago with the 25:20 sled dogs because it's that much of a wintry Place how the hell he's supposed to have cover crops up there when they only have a growing season and and 25:29 then it turns to Winter how could you do cover crops in that environment? Can you there's I've been watching more and more but permanent type 25:37 systems inside I saw a guy that was using alfalf as a cover crop growing corn in Alfalfa. It's unusual. But I see that and some of those colder climates. 25:46 It's tougher no doubt about it. There's no way around it that that shuts down in the in the cold cooler Seasons. 25:55 But as long as you have that short window of time in the summer to build that syllabiology, it'll do it freeze it and it opens it back up as soon as the soil moisture 26:04 gets person that tells me no, I can't use cover crops because they'll use up all my moisture. I'm in an air climate. What's your response? 26:14 As far as cover crops and Eric climates, you know, the number one. The number one identifier for soil is climate. 26:21 So there's a reason they go cactus in Tucson. I don't know how you can grow. I don't know how you can grow corn in those some of those climates, but some people try alright, so 26:30 is it true that cover crops are going to use up all your moisture? I think you know, right that's not true. That's that's 26:36 a myth. All right. What else? Is there anything I need to know about adding carbon to the soil. Is there anything else I need know about ways to do it or the benefits of you ever talk about benefits of 26:45 us or anything that we didn't cover on they on that whole thing. I mean you have used carbon you have carbon sources that are that are 26:51 strong that last a long time and that's some of the humic acids and other things of that sort. But the best source of 26:57 carbon is carbohydrates from the plant. That's that's the ones that the plant can actually feed the biology immediately. 27:04 So I think those products are great. They will they work long term. But over time is you know, you're not going to build up a lot of carbon when you look at how much carbon is in the soil 27:13 and Kelly could look at this funny to solid digestion. It's 26,030,000 pounds per acre on the 27:19 top six inches. But join the arm and 30,000 pounds 15 Tons of carbon per acre is what you just told me. There's more than that in some cases, but there are there is a 27:29 lot of carbon in the soils. It's just dislike any other nutrient. It's just not being utilized by the active biology. 27:35 That would be okay and as a source, all right, don't ask the gear their kids. Is there a maximum amount of 27:44 carbon that my soul can hold? Connor first it's hard it can I get to where I'm carbon? I'm carbon saturated. 27:54 I I don't know the answer to that question be a textbook ideal soil has always been 5% organic matter. What all do you think about that? 28:04 That's five percent organic matter is an unusual number anymore. I don't usually see that I usually see it or in most the I states around three. 28:13 there is some fives but for the most part and then you go out to California and and the southeast those are less than one percent. A lot 28:21 of these farmers are growing crops with with really low organic matter. Yeah. Okay, so you just brought up an interesting 28:27 thing there Connor Organic matter we know we see it in the soil testing. There's organic matter equal carbon and carbon equally organic matter. 28:36 Organic matter is carbon but organic matter isn't your only carbon isn't that the accurate statement how yes? 28:45 Yes, they're not. They're not they're not that they're not the same carbon. The organic matter is not your total. Carbon Source. No. Yeah. Okay matter. 28:51 Okay matter is carbon but it's not the only carbon in the soil. Right, right. Okay. So Al can I can I get to where 29:00 I'm carbon saturated? Can I get to where that I have all the carbon my soul. I don't think so. Not in a natural system you 29:06 look at some of the rainforest in the South you know there. No, I don't believe you can over buy it. Can I can I get to where I'm carbon poison? 29:15 Can I get where there's too much and it's a problem? The plan of respond, I don't believe so. No. Okay, well because if look at the other things we've 29:24 compared it to NP and K for this episode. I can have too much nitrogen myself. Right? And I could have toxic levels. 29:30 I could have a toxic levels of nitrogen, correct? He sure can. I mean think about that nitrogen is not it's not just in cycle. Just like the carbon cycle. There's a reason it's 29:39 not found in a solid form in nature. It's that we've we figured that out with the Navy is all the minimum back in the 1800s is that it's the most limiting nutrient add 29:48 it and you get all this explosive growth. There's a reason why nitrogen is 70% of our atmosphere then in a 72 or 74% 29:58 of our atmosphere. There's a that that nitrogen product cycle is very similar to the carbon cycle. Yeah, but what I just said is what comes to the soils and 30:07 for comparing C to NPK I can have too much nitrogen and it can be detrimental to my cropsy. Right, right. And I can have and I'm gonna have too much pee these these 30:17 Farms Dairy Farms that they get in trouble because they just keep putting the manure on the same Fields next to the Barns and it gets where it's like hell there's there's too much phosphorus 30:26 in that soul. And it ends up being a problem, correct. Yep. And sometimes gets in the ground water and all 30:33 that when we have too much K. Can we have too much K where it causes a problem? 30:38 Potassium. Yeah, you can. Okay, but you're saying we can't have too much see. Because it's such a it's such a it's such a 30:47 storehouse a soul can store more than we could ever put in. Yeah, you can't apply it through a spreader to make to accumulate 30:53 what the plant can produce got it Kelly you're all about the carbon. We're gonna wrap things up here on this episode. Why carbon is more important than mp&k. What are we not cover? 31:02 You know, well one of the things obviously I know it's known that I want to sell my carbon credits, but I don't Farm in 31:11 the fashion I do because I want to sell carbon credits. I farm in the fashion I do is because it's best for my pocketbook. It produces the best yields and the fact 31:20 that it aligns with the carbon Market is just a nice bonus. It's a coincidence. So I I just I really want people to understand 31:29 that we do what we do because it's the best agronomic practice and it just happens to fit in 31:36 with the carbon Market. Yeah. I really like that that we're not we're not out here farming for the carbon credits. 31:42 We know and your education you have evolved. Yes, when Connor was born 23 years ago and you were that was about your beginning of farm being a farmer. 31:52 Right. Okay, right. Did you even think about carbon? No, no, you were out there. Just saying I got going I gotta go to the go to co-op and go get nobody 32:02 talks about carbon because nobody can sell it to you. Nobody talks about carbon because nobody can sell a team. I like it. So when did your Evolution begin 32:12 when your carbon Evolution begin? I would say when I was approached by the first carbon Market to sell. 32:20 In the spring of 20 is when I first had a deep dive into it, you know, I worked with an agronomist Steve kilpak starting in January 15 and 32:32 we had conversations over it but in the spring of 20 meeting owl the carbon Market, you know, Nori approached 32:42 me about becoming the first person United States to sell my carbon credits and then happened to meet Al about the same time. Like I said, and that's when over 32:51 the last couple years was when we've really tried to become educated on the subject and what we what we have learned is that we don't know very much. 33:00 But we've made great strides. I've made great strides because of how and because of nori. Yeah, I think that's fantastic the future 33:10 Connor. You're our future. What are we going? What are we gonna do about carbon five years from now carbons again? It's it's all the buzzword every 33:19 pick up the newspaper. It's about carbon carbon climate crisis. Carbon all this net. What are we going to do? What about what are we gonna be doing five years from now 33:28 when you're pulling the range they're currently in the cattle. Okay. It's was chuckle because 33:35 you don't think are we pulling the reins at garlic? No, no five years. You don't think the old man's gonna hand the reins over in five 33:41 years. We'll see. It's it's become a lot more of our focus and recent years here. And I think that's gonna be 33:51 a more widespread pattern and I think it's gonna become even more in the going down the road. That's 33:58 That's the thing. We need to look at the most like Al said it's the powerhouse. It's the energy it. I heard an analogy. Once that in pnk 34:07 are like vitamins and you take a couple of those and you start to feel a lot more healthy feel a lot better. So you said not to eat food anymore. Like food is the 34:16 carpet. That's that's what we need as our main source of energy and power and 34:22 We need to focus on that. Connor why did you wait until this point in the episode to actually say something that 34:30 succinctly intelligently insightful. We were saving it in case I didn't add it just go to bed with that one for God's sakes boy. What did 34:43 you just say and say it again? Even Al is like holy s***. The kids are great. That was what I just say succinctly intelligently insightful and it 34:52 was any it was in a bite size. It was just a little nugget of Genius. 34:57 Hey, I'm glad you waited. I'm glad you waited Connor. You know what I wouldn't even I I would have not even said it for God's sake say it again in pnk 35:07 are vitamins. Take me from there. Okay it I heard in in PK are like your vitamins and you're not feeling good. 35:16 One day you decided to take these vitamins and you feel a lot more healthy you feel you feel better. So you decide not to eat food anymore because that's equivalent of 35:25 what carbon is. That's your energy source and all the sudden you just want to focus on these three little things that are 35:32 Us very small percentage of what you are as a person and it's the same way with the crop and the soil that we're we're looking at a very small percentage like 35:41 outside less than 10% of the plant the rest of it is that carbon hydrogen and oxygen and that's where our Focus needs to be. 35:49 fruit Oh, all right. Well. I I really appreciate being here you got anything to close out on because that's a problem. And that was 35:59 fabulous. It's it's great to hear that from The Young from The Young agronomist coming up and it's not something they taught. It's 36:05 not something you thought or was taught back 35 years ago when you begin your career either. Oh, no, no got it 36:11 Kelly Garrett. One of the founders are extreme AG area and Iowa his son finally very late. Very 36:17 late in the game. He's like the kid that came in the game was pretty well lost. Right and and there 36:23 you were any and he puts up he puts up 24 points with three minutes left some like the newspapers are like where did this kid come from? That's what we're 36:35 going with right there. I'll do from a company called biome makers and you know where 36:41 to find us an extreme AG very awesome episode in being care. The vitamins carbon is the food you will not be healthy. If you only take 36:50 vitamins understand that that's why we called this. Bicarbon is more important than NP and K till next time check out all the cool stuff. We're doing extreme AG dot 36:59 Farm share these episodes as best you can if you have a topic you want us to cover. Send us an email at the website and we'll delve into 37:07 it Kelly here Connor Garrett. Thank you for being here. Thanks for having us and I'll thanks for being here. I want to do this again because I really like your stuff. Oh, thanks, Damian. Thanks Kelly and 37:18 till next time it's extremely exciting the Curve. Thanks for listening to another edition of cutting the curve for more information that you can apply to your farm operation. Visit 37:28 extreme mag dot Farm are your crop stressed out AG Explorer has you covered with a full line of products to help protect your crop from environmental 37:37 stressors such as cold and wet or heat and drought check out AC explorer.com and start protecting your yields and profits.

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